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Everything for the production of yogurt

Everything for the production of yogurt

Modern yogurt and dairy production involves the cultivation of milk with live bacteria. Bacteria produce lactic acid that coagulates milk proteins, making yogurt thick and slightly sour in taste. The bacterial cultures required for yogurt production are Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus.

Definition of yogurt

Yogurt is a fermented milk product containing the characteristic bacterial cultures Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. All yogurt must contain at least 8.25% solids, not fats. Full-fat yogurt should contain no less than 3.25% milk fat, low-fat yogurt no more than 2% milk fat and low-fat yogurt less than 0.5% milk.

The two types of yogurt commonly found in supermarkets are Greek yogurt and Swiss-style yogurt. The specified yogurt is when the yogurt is packed with the fruit at the bottom of the cup and the yogurt at the top. Swiss style yogurt is when the fruit is mixed into yogurt before packaging.

Components

The main ingredient of yogurt is milk. The type of milk used depends on the type of yogurt – whole milk for full fat yogurt, low fat milk for low fat yogurt and skim milk for non fat fat yogurt. Other dairy ingredients are allowed in yogurt to adjust the composition, such as a cream to adjust the fat content and non-fat dry milk to adjust the solids content.

The yogurt solids content is often adjusted above the minimum of 8.25% to provide a better body and texture to the final yogurt. The CFR contains a list of permitted dairy ingredients for yogurt.

Stabilizers, specific dairy machinery can also be used in yogurt to improve the body and texture by increasing firmness, preventing the whey from separating and helping to keep the fruit evenly mixed in the yogurt. Stabilizers used in yogurt are alginates (carrageenan), gelatins, pectins and starch.

Sweeteners, flavors and fruit preparations are used in yogurt to provide variety to the consumer. A list of permitted yogurt sweeteners can be found at CFR.

Bacterial cultures

The main crops in yogurt are Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. The function of the original crops is the fermentation of lactose (milk sugar) to produce lactic acid. The increase in lactic acid lowers the pH and causes the milk to thicken or form the soft gel that is characteristic of yogurt. Fermentation of lactose also produces the aromatic compounds that are characteristic of yogurt. Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus are the only 2 crops required by law (CFR) in yogurt.

Other bacterial cultures, such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus subsp. Cesium bacteria and Bifido can be added to yogurt as probiotic cultures. Probiotic cultures benefit human health by improving lactose digestion, gastrointestinal function and boosting the immune system.

General process of yogurt production

The following flowchart and discussion provide an overview of the steps required to make yogurt.

1. Adjust the milk composition and mix ingredients

The milk composition can be adjusted to achieve the desired fat and solids content. Dry milk is often added to increase the amount of whey protein to provide a desired texture. Ingredients such as stabilizers are currently being added.

2. Pasteurize the milk

The milk mixture is pasteurized at 85 ° C for 30 minutes or at 95 ° C for 10 minutes. A high heat treatment is used to denature the whey proteins. This allows the proteins to form a more stable gel, which prevents water from separating during storage.

High heat treatment also further reduces the number of spoilage organisms in the milk, providing a better environment for the growth of starter crops. The yogurt is pasteurized before the starter cultures are added to ensure that the cultures remain active in the yogurt after fermentation to act as probiotics. If the yogurt is pasteurized after fermentation, the crops will be turned off.

3. Homogenize

The mixture is homogenized (2000 to 2500 psi) to mix all the ingredients well and improve the consistency of the yogurt.

4. Cooling the milk

Τhe milk is cooled to 42 ° C to bring the yogurt to the ideal growth temperature for the starter culture.

5. Vaccinate with primers

The starter cultures are mixed in cold milk.

6. Hold it

The milk is kept at 42 ° C until a pH of 4.5 is reached. This allows the fermentation to proceed to form a soft gel and the characteristic taste of yogurt. This process can take several hours.

7. Cool it

The yogurt is cooled to 7 ° C to stop the fermentation process.

8. Add fruits and flavors

Fruits and flavors are added in different stages depending on the type of yogurt. For the yogurt style set, the fruit is added to the bottom of the cup and then the inoculated yogurt is poured on top and the yogurt is kneaded in the cup. For Swiss-style yogurt, the fruit is mixed with the fermented, cold yogurt before packaging.

9. Package

The yogurt is pumped out of the fermentation bucket and packaged as desired.

Read more about dairy products and machinery:

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